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H-1B Visa

A visa classification that allows a foreign worker to enter the US temporarily for the purpose of performing services in a “specialty occupation” for a US employer. The H-1B visa classification requires that (1) a foreign national be coming to the US to work temporarily in a “specialty occupation”, (2) that the foreign national have the equivalent of at least a US bachelor’s degree in a field related to that occupation; and (3) that the sponsoring company pay the foreign national the prevailing wage, provide proper notice to its workforce, and not be involved in a strike or lockout. The Neufeld Memo of January 2011 contains a recent update from the State Department regarding H-1B visas and staffing suppliers.


A measure of workforce size that counts all people on the payroll equally, as individuals, regardless of their employment contract, hours of work or length of assignment. For example, 12 workers who each work one month would count as headcount of one for the year.


A rather colloquial description of an individual or company providing executive search services.

Healthcare Staffing Services

Within the temporary help sector, this segment includes supplemental staffing to medical facilities (hospitals, nursing homes and outpatient clinics), as well as the provision of licensed nursing personnel (RNs, LVNs in the United States), trained (medical technologists), and unlicensed staff (home health aides, homemakers, personal assistants, etc.) to home healthcare agencies.

Healthcare—Allied Healthcare Staffing

Staffing of healthcare professionals other than physicians, advanced practitioners and nurses. Common job titles include physical therapist, occupational therapist, respiratory therapist, medical assistant, pharmacy technician, phlebotomist, sonographer, imaging technician and other medical technicians.

Healthcare—Locum Tenens Staffing

Staffing of physicians, advanced practitioners (physician assistants, nurse practitioners or nurse anesthetists) or dentists on temporary assignments, which typically involves temporary relocation and staffing firm coverage of housing expenses. Locum tenens physicians are typically paid as independent contractors rather than employees.

Healthcare—Per Diem Nurse Staffing

Staffing of nurses (registered nurses, licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses, and nursing assistants) on assignments of less than four weeks, which typically does not involve relocation.

Healthcare—Travel Nurse Staffing

Staffing of primarily registered nurses (RNs) on assignments of four weeks or more. A travel assignment can involve temporary relocation and staffing firm coverage of housing expenses, but not always. Despite the use of the word “travel,” local nurses are sometimes used for travel assignments. The most common assignment length is 13 weeks, which may be renewed.

Hiring Manager

The manager/employee within a buyer organization who requests a new permanent job position be filled or to fill an open permanent job. In most cases the hiring manager is also the manager that the new permanent employee will report to once the hire is completed. Hiring managers can also be individuals who engage contingent workers, but they are then referred to as Engagement Managers during those transactions because they are not executing a hire. (See also: Engagement Manager.)

HR Consulting

A service segment of the Other Workforce Solutions Industry, HR Consulting is a specialist form of management consulting, HR Consultancies are hired by organizations in order to achieve a better outcome for their human resources-related activities. It differs from HR Outsourcing in that clients pay for an advisory/consulting recommendation rather for a specific HR-related service. HR Consulting firms can advise clients on important strategic issues such as performance management and alignment, HR technology selection/implementation, HR transformation (i.e. Mergers & Acquisitions, redundancy programs), talent management, and staff analytics. HR Consultancies perform needs assessments or audits and make recommendations or proposals, coordinate the creation and implementation of an action or corrective plan, and when required, organize and coordinate cross-functional HR teams to assist with developing and implementing performance improvement corrective plans, programs or processes.

HR Tech

A service segment of the “Other Workforce Solutions Industry” within Staffing Industry Analysts’ Workforce Solutions Ecosystem, including a number of different software solutions that can be deployed post-sourcing of workers in order to better manage, engage, and motivate these workers. These solutions include the following activities offered as a standalone activity (or point solution): onboarding, personnel administration, benefits administration, performance management, learning management, time and attendance, expenses management and engagement/recognition. These point solutions can also be bundled as part of a suite of Human Resource Management System (HRMS). Within our definition, HR Tech excludes technologies used to acquire talent (such as ATS and VMS) and payrolling, as these appear elsewhere within our Ecosystem. While we might categorize them separately, some vendors do include these services within their wider HRMS portfolios.

HR-XML Staffing Industry Data Exchange Standards (SIDES)

A comprehensive and freely available suite of data exchange standards designed to offer efficiencies and cost savings for all participants in the staffing supply chain by using Extensible Markup Language (XML), a set of rules for encoding documents in machine-readable form. HR-XML SIDES offers a means of exchanging data over the Internet by standardizing data elements and attributes and the way they are exchanged. Through these standardized XML data exchanges, staffing suppliers, staffing customers and third-party vendor managers may share orders, assignments, and resumes, etc without the need for expensive systems integration. Originally developed as part of a collaboration between Adecco, Kelly, Manpower, Randstad, The SFN Group and Vedior, HR-XML SIDES was donated to the HR-XML Consortium, an independent, non-profit, volunteer-led organization dedicated to the development and promotion of a standard suite of human resources XML specifications. HR-XML SIDES is available in English, French and Japanese.

Human Capital Management

Interconnected human resource processes designed to source, attract, select, train, develop, retain, promote, and move employees through an organization with the aim of improving revenue, customer satisfaction, quality, productivity, cost, cycle time, and market capitalization. The major aspects of talent management normally include recruiting, performance management, leadership develop-ment and workforce planning/identifying talent gaps. (See also: Talent Management.)

Human Capital Supply Chain Management (HCSM)

Human Capital Supply Chain (HCSM) refers to the integration of business planning, strategic workforce planning, staffing and recruiting processes and technology to enhance corporate productivity and profitability. Employing methods of common manufacturing and distribution supply chain management principles to human resources and human capital, corporations create an end-to-end, human capital supply chain.

Human Cloud

A service segment of the Talent Acquisition Technology Industry. The Human Cloud is an emerging set of work intermediation models that enable work arrangements of various kinds to be established and completed (including payment of workers) entirely through a digital/online platform. In many cases (though not always), the platform also supports “the enactment and management” of the work (to a lesser or greater degree). Job boards and social networks do not fall within our definition of the Human Cloud; while those two types of talent exchange platforms may support the sourcing and recruiting part of work arrangements being established, such platforms do not further enable or support work arrangements through to their completion (including payment of workers, tax filings, etc.). Staffing Industry Analysts has defined three types of Human Cloud platform models: CrowdsourcingOnline Work Services and Online Staffing Platforms. Some companies operate across more than one of these Human Cloud segments.

Human Resource Information System (HRIS)

The Human Resource Information System (HRIS) is a software or online solution for the data entry, data tracking, and data information needs of the Human Resources, payroll, management, and accounting functions within a business.

Human Resource Management System (HRMS)

A combined platform of human resource management technology that seeks to automate repetitive and time-consuming tasks and, thereby, frees up time for the HR department and enables it to focus more on culture issues, retention, and other highly impactful areas. Modules within a typical HRMS will include managing payroll, recruitment and onboarding, gathering, storing, and accessing employee information, keeping attendance records and tracking absenteeism, performance evaluation, benefits administration, learning management, employee self-service and employee scheduling.

Human Resource Outsourcing (HRO)

A service segment of the Process Outsourcing Industry, HRO is an outsourcing relationship in which a third-party vendor is hired to take over part or all of a client’s human resources functions. A HRO firm allows companies to pick and choose which services will be outsourced and which will be managed in-house. This differs from the services of a Professional Employer Organization (PEO) (see definition) which takes care of all HR functions. HRO could entail the provision of specialist HR personnel on an outsourced basis or the provisions of specific services such as employment law, employee benefits, insurance, health and pension programs. Many HRO providers will also provide Payrolling/Compliance services.

Hybrid Program

A contingent workforce program management strategy that involves blending different sourcing model attributes. Typically, a hybrid program would include elements of vendor-neutral as well as master-supplier programs. For example, a buyer might engage a single provider to act as the sole supplier for its Light Industrial job requisitions while having multiple providers competitively bid on IT positions.


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