Your Score:  

Your Ranking:  

Your Score:  

Your Ranking:  

Your Score:  

Your Ranking:  

Your Score:  

Your Ranking:  

Your Score:  

Your Ranking:  



An applicant for a job who has been pre-qualified for temp or full-time consideration. Also used to distinguish an individual from a pool of unqualified applicants.

Candidate Relationship Management

A widely implemented strategy for managing a company’s interactions with internal and external job applicants and candidate prospects. It involves using technology to organize, automate, and synchronize business processes—principally recruiting activities, but also for promoting the employer brand, and the development of talent pools or communities. The overall goals are to find, attract, and engage new prospective employees, nurture and retain the candidates the company has invested in but cannot yet hire, entice former employees back into the fold, and measure the return on recruitment marketing and job advertising costs.1

Captive Staffing

An internal group that provides staffing services and solutions within (and usually exclusively for) an organization to place talent in a temporary engagement. This internal staffing group, often operating under its own brand and structured much like a staffing company, provides a variety of traditional staffing services that range from sourcing talent that matches the organization’s temporary engagement needs; to ongoing temporary assignment management support; and the onboarding and offboarding services at the beginning and completion of a temporary engagement.

Casual Labor



Contrat à Durée Determinée: French legal equivalent of a temporary employment contract, concluded directly between the employer and an employee. Legally, a CDD does not differ a lot from a contract for a temporary worker hired through a temporary agency, except that the latter requires three participants: the user company, the temporary agency and the temporary worker. In practice, CDDs are often used for longer assignments.


Contrat à Durée Indéterminée; French Legal equivalent of a permanent employment contract.

CEI (Certificate of Employment Intermediaries)

The Singapore Ministry of Manpower requires that all agency employees who are acting as employment intermediaries must have obtained a CEI. There are two different levels of certification depending on whether or not foreign workers are to be placed. It is important that agency employees properly understand their obligations under the various acts, and their personal liability if they breach certain conditions, and this is one of the reasons for the certification course and process. The Ministry of Manpower maintains an online registry of all CEI holders.

Certified Contingent Workforce Professional (CCWP)

An accreditation program provided by Staffing Industry Analysts designed for HR, procurement, MSP solution providers and others who manage corporate contingent staffing. The CCWP Certification assesses and expands the level of expertise of participants to create an elite brand of CW program management professionals. To become certified, participants must demonstrate knowledge of contingent workforce management best practices by taking a class and passing a rigorous certification exam.

CL (Comprehensive License)

One of two types of license required in order to operate as an employment agency in Singapore and is valid for three-year periods. An employment agency holding a CL may place any type of workers. However, if they place foreign workers, the number they place will depend on the amount of security deposit they have furnished. (See also: Select License.)


Any company to which you provide Agent of Record or Employee of Record services. This may be an end-user hiring entity or it may be a staffing intermediary. Only in situations where you have a separate contract with a different business unit or division of a client company should you count these as separate clients.

Clinical/Scientific Staffing

Co-employment (Co-employer)

Legally referred to as a “Joint Employer” relationship, co-employment is often used to describe the relationship among two or more organizations that exert some level of control over the same worker or group of workers. Co-employers often share some degree of liability for shared employees. (See also: Joint Employment.)

Co-employment Risk

The specific legal and financial risk to employers arising from co-employment situations. These risks can include, but are not limited to, pay, benefits or unemployment claims; discrimination claims; harassment claims; and, within the United States, workers compensation claims. Many experts view co-employment risk as a fact of life, particularly in dealing with contingent workers and staffing agencies.

Collective Labor Agreement (CLA)

A CLA is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions and is common throughout continental Europe. Collective bargaining consists of the process of negotiation between representatives of a union and employers (represented by management, or in some countries by an employer organization) involving terms and conditions of employment, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance-procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions. The parties often refer to the result of the negotiation as a collective bargaining agreement (CBA) or as a collective employment agreement (CEA). CLAs can be negotiated at a company, regional or national level. Staffing agencies in the Netherlands have their own Collective Labour Agreement, which applies to temporary staffing and which is administered by ABU, the Dutch staffing association.

Commercial Staffing

A segment of temporary staffing that includes, but is not limited to, workers with the skills, knowledge and training required for occupations in light industrial, office/clerical and general labor categories. Sometimes referred to as “Traditional Staffing”or “Generalist Staffing.”

Compressed Workweek

A standard workweek of 35 to 40 hours that has been compressed into three or four days of 9 to 12 hours. Sometimes referred to as “four-tens,” meaning four 10-hour workdays.

Consolidated Invoicing

The combination of invoices from multiple sources (such as staffing suppliers) into a single invoice.


A term often used interchangeably with “temporary employee,” though typically one performing professional-level work in areas such as IT, Engineering or Management Consulting Services.(See also: Temporary Employee.) Confusingly, in some European countries “Consultant” is also the term commonly used to describe the front-office staff in a temporary work agency.

Contingency Placement

The practice of charging a fee to either the applicant or the employer only after a successful referral of the applicant to the employer for employment.(See also: Retained Search.)

Contingency Recruiting (Search)

Refers to senior-level recruitment or executive-level searches most likely undertaken by an executive search firm. The executive search firm takes responsibility for the initial recruiting, screening and interviewing with payment of all (or most) of the fee contingent on the hiring of a referred candidate into a traditional employment role.(See also: Retained Search.)

Contingent RPO

A type of Managed Service Provision model of supplying contingent labor whereby the supplier sources contingent labor through client-dedicated recruiters in an outsourcing mode. These recruiters are trained on the company business and employer brand to attract candidates and any candidate data derived pools developed as part of the sourcing process are owned by the client. As such, the candidate database is the IP of the client which is returned at the end of a contract. Also, unlike the traditional Master Vendor MSP models, the candidate databases are not shared with other clients and candidates are not offered roles in other companies. The majority of activity for the Contingent RPO supplier relates to performing services that deliver a high percentage of direct sourcing through this model, rather than managing and sourcing suppliers which strongly features in a Vendor Neutral MSP model. Further, unlike other MSP models, Contingent RPO pricing is typically volume based, with a price per candidate placed, rather than being based on spend either by number of candidates placed or on a per candidate basis. This model is closer to a Direct Sourcing model except that the service is outsourced to a third party.

Contingent Worker

Used to describe work arrangements that differ from regular/permanent, direct wage and salary employment. Contingent work and workers are primarily distinguished by having an explicitly defined or limited tenure. Contingent workers include temporary employees provided by an outside staffing agency and independent contractors/consultants. Contingent workers may also include temporary workers from an internal pool, and others (such as summer interns, seasonal workers, freelancers, “crowd-sourced” workers, etc.) employed directly by an organization for an intentionally limited time period. From an employer point of view, contingent work also includes statement-of-work (SOW) consultants who work for the company on a short-term basis. While the consultants themselves may or may not have an expectation of ongoing employment with their consulting firm, their work for the client is considered contingent. Workers in Professional Employer Organization arrangements are not contingent workers, because the relationship is by definition ongoing. Similarly, outsourced service workers would not be included in contingent work as this work is expected to have an ongoing rather than explicitly defined, short-term tenure. The “contingent worker” label applies to all workers of any skill type or experience level who meet this definition, including those in professional, blue-collar, or office/clerical roles.

Contingent Workforce Management (CWM)

Contingent Workforce Management (CWM) is the strategic approach to managing an organization’s contingent workforce in a way that it reduces the company’s cost in the management of contingent employees and mitigates the company’s risk in employing them while providing a more consistent supplier and user experience.

Contingent Workforce Program

The way a company or institution organizes its need for and use of (normally large numbers of ) contingent workers (See: Contingent Worker). This may be limited to staffing, but usually includes other elements to optimize cost, quality, efficiency and level of risk. A program usually, but not necessarily, includes services from third parties. A Contingent Workforce Program is based on, or integrated into, one or more Sourcing Models. (See: Sourcing Models, Hybrid Program.)

Contract Services

Well-defined services delivered by an individual or organization as laid out in a contract.


Industry segment of the Workforce Solutions Ecosystem which includes Directly Sourced Contingent Workers and SOW Consulting Services. In addition to consulting businesses where work is paid on the basis of a defined deliverable/statement of work, this covers those categories of contingent workers that are not sourced via third-party intermediaries operating in other parts of our Workforce Solutions Ecosystem (i.e. temporary workers sourced via a staffing agency and freelance or crowdsourced workers sourced via the Human Cloud).


An individual hired to deliver a specified service as laid out in a contract. In some organizations this term is used interchangeably with “temporary employee” to refer to individuals employed by a temporary staffing firm, typically at a professional level.(See also: Independent Contractor.)

Contractor Payrolling

An arrangement in which a service provider acts as the employer of a contingent worker recruited by and working for a third-party hirer. This arrangement is found in different business models across the globe, such as the typical US “payrolling” model also found in the Netherlands. Payrolling services are typically billed at significantly lower mark-ups than traditional temporary staffing because the staffing firm or other intermediary has not incurred any recruiting costs.

Conversion Fee

Compensation fee paid to a temporary staffing firm for the loss of an employee when the staffing firm’s customer hires the temporary employee on a direct-hire basis. In the United States, this is also known as Liquidated Damages. In Europe, the Conversion Fee may be defined or restricted under law. (Some full-service firms prefer to charge a “placement fee” rather than a conversion fee when this occurs. Many firms allow the conversion fee to be negotiated over a certain period on the temporary assignment.) (See also: Temporary-to-Permanent.)


An arrangement between an organization and an independent contractor that has established itself as a legal entity (LLC, corporation, or S corporation) rather than a sole proprietor independent contractor (1099). In the UK, a limited company established by an IC which is owned and controlled by the independent contractor is known as a “personal services company.”

Cost-Plus Pricing

Pricing methodology that gives the buyer full visibility to all of the costs in a given outsourced program. The buyer and seller agree contractually on a fixed percentage of profit as part of the cost. The actual cost, plus the agreed-upon profit margin, is paid by the buyer to the seller directly (not as part of supplier mark-up). The advantages of this model is the transparency and flexibility of determining exactly what activities and what costs are in the model and the ability to collaboratively optimize these over time. May also be known as “Should Cost Pricing.”


A sub-segment of the Human Cloud, Crowdsourcing is an online platform model that enables work assignments to get parsed out and performed (often as disaggregated “microtasks”) by a far-flung “crowd” of independent workers who perform (paid or otherwise compensated/incented) work at will. Typically, the client of a “crowdsourcing” platform is purchasing “an outcome” (as a service output, not a labor relationship). Crowdsourcing also includes work arrangements where a “crowd” of workers compete or bid against one another to solve problems or tasks, with winner(s) selected and compensated based on the merit of their submissions.

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Software that enables users to track and manage customer or prospect contacts and information centrally. Ideally, all customer contacts are captured by the system and then made available to the organization through pre-defined or ad-hoc reports.


Follow on Instagram